4). Against Social Kind Anti-Realism. The Ant Trap: Rebuilding the Foundations of the Social Sciences. 2020. I will argue that Einheuser’s two-dimensional framework does not support MD2. This anti-realistic attitude originated in the epistemological scepticism of the early 20th century which was even radicalized by the advent of the »linguistic turn«, constructivism, postmodernism, and poststructuralism. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0048393115613494, Fine, K. 1994. Thus, MD2 does not identify the way in which social kinds depend on our mental states. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0378.2008.00303.x, Ásta. The falsificationism is proposed by scientist K.Popper. Although inhabitants of w might call XYZ by a word which is homonymous with our word ‘water,’ XYZ is not water, and our concept WATER doesn’t apply to it (Putnam 1973, 1975; Burge 1986). Ian Hacking (1999, p. As such, it fails to support social kind anti-realism. With respect to each relation, I argue that either it fails to accomplish the Dependence Task, or it fails to accomplish the Anti-Realist Task. In: Hale, B and Hoffmann, A (eds. Searle, J. Call this the Anti-Realist Task. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/bjps/axp042, Khalidi, MA. According to this interpretation of MD2, a social kind, K, is mind-dependent when we determine the general essence of being K, i.e., what it is to be K. How do we determine the essential properties of social kinds? The view that social kinds (e.g., money, migrant, marriage) are mind-dependent is a prominent one in the social ontology literature. I maintain that essentiality is conferred by our use of concepts’ (138). A response-dependent property, F, is a particular kind of dispositional property: F is the property of being disposed to produce a certain psychological response (cognitive or affective) in the relevant creatures under certain conditions (i.e., the conditions under which the dispositional property is manifested).26. Similarly, John Searle argues that social kinds are not real because they “only are what they are, because that is what we believe that they are” (Searle 2007: 4). : opposition to or deliberate eschewal of realism especially in art and literature There are as many different varieties of antirealism as there are of realism—perhaps more. There is some world, w′ =
, such that the properties which are essential to money in the actual world, w@, are not essential to money in w′. Against Social Kind Anti-Realism. In the absence of such an explanation, there is no reason to endorse social kind anti-realism.7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00048402.2011.616900, Raven, MJ. Realism definition, interest in or concern for the actual or real, as distinguished from the abstract, speculative, etc. Rather, they maintain that physical, chemical, biological, and even psychological kinds are real, but deny that social kinds have the same status. In: Manley, D, Chalmers, DJ and Wasserman, R (eds. The Essence of Response-Dependence. Probably the most widely known and widely accepted version of the thesis that social kinds depend on our mental states is the collective acceptance view of social kinds. REALISM AND ANTI-REALISM THE past three decades have seen a renewed interest among analytic philosophers in the topic of realism, an interest that has given rise to a significant body ofliterature at the intersection of metaphysics and the philosophy oflanguage. ), Metaphysical Grounding Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Interestingly, quantum physicists believe that the Large Hadron Collider will create micro-black holes, so the boundary between realism a… 10According to Thomasson (2003a) and Khalidi (2015), only some social kinds depend on our mental states in this way. Lanham: Roman & Littlefield Publishing, Inc. pp. Wedgwood, R. 1997. What we can do is point to the unclarity in a forthright way, earnestly try to clarify it, and, if that fails (as I have argued that it does), criticize social kind anti-realism in such a way that the unclarity does not need to be resolved in order to see why the view does not support even the figurative claims of unreality. Specifically, someone is a permanent resident of say, the United States, because the appropriate individual(s) at the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) agree or declare that she is authorized to live and work in the United States permanently, although she is not a U.S. citizen. The essential properties of an individual are what it is to be that very individual, as opposed to some other individual. Moreover, social conventions may change such that bills issued by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing cease to be money. Speakers do not refer to the same kind, with different essential properties in different worlds. pp. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198755678.001.0001. Dordrecht: Springer. 19th-20th Century Realism and Anti-Realism ... -Chekhov started his literary career writing short stories to . According to Khalidi, whether or not something is mind-dependent is irrelevant to the question of whether that thing is real (225). 13See Trogdon 2013, Raven 2015, and Bliss and Trogdon 2016 for an overview of this literature. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/aristotelian/95.1.269, Fine, K. 2012. One prominent use of the term ‘real’ is to distinguish between existent and non-existent entities: real entities exist, unreal entities do not. 5Khalidi (2016) considers several varieties of mind-dependence that are importantly different from those I consider in what follows. In philosophy of science, anti-realism applies chiefly to claims about the non-reality of "unobservable" entities such as electrons or genes, which are not detectable with human senses. The same goes for any property that is essential to being K. If we have no control over which properties are essential to being K (because we have no control over which properties K has necessarily), then we cannot determine which properties are essential to being K— a fortiori we cannot determine which properties are essential to being K by the way in which we use our terms and apply our concepts. Especially in its second half many neo-realist movements were launched, and non-Western literatures (e.g. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199892631.001.0001, Hayek, F. 1943. 53–68. 2018. However, by hypothesis, these properties are not essential to kind K2. Here is how the remainder of the paper will proceed. Finally, in section 6, I consider Ásta’s suggestion that social kinds are mind-dependent in the sense that they are defined by conferred properties, i.e., properties that are instantiated in virtue of subjects’ attitudes toward the entities that instantiate them (2008, 2013, 2018). Social Construction as Grounding. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524021.003.0012, Haslanger, S. 1995. 2020;3(1):55–67. However, the fact that some properties are identical to dispositions to produce a psychological response does not obviously diminish their reality in any way (Rosen 1994, Egan 2006). This methodology is falsificationism. In other words, according to social kind anti-realism, the reason why social kinds are unreal is not simply that they are dependent; rather, it is that they are mind dependent. In other words, MD2 does not accomplish the Dependence Task. Resisting Reality: Social Construction and Social Critique. 2014. 2008a. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-9147-2_2, Thomasson, A. Intellectual Norms and Foundations of Mind. The debate begins with modern science. Thus, MD2 does not identify the way in which social kinds depend on our mental states. This is what I intend to do in what follows. 2003. 2017. 2003a. Realism in literature. However, if ‘real’ and ‘unreal’ are simply synonyms for ‘mind-independent’ and ‘mind-dependent,’ social kind anti-realism fails to be an interesting thesis. The movement was rooted in the 1920s and, though First, Searle’s defense of social kind anti-realism includes all social kinds, and not just a subset of them. Journal of the American Philosophical Association. No scientist has ever seen a black hole, but theory predicts that they exist. The fact that social kind anti-realists have not identified the sense of unreality that they attribute to social kinds gives us a preliminary reason to doubt that social kind anti-realism is well-founded. Scientist should put the theory on trial by falsification. Thomasson (2003b) likewise interprets Searle in this way. Anti-realism in science. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 95: 269–290. 17Those who reject the idea that grounding holds between facts, or those who believe that grounding claims ought to be expressed using a sentential operator, are invited to reformulate MD1-G accordingly. Grounding: Toward a Theory of the “In-Virtue-of” Relation. However, in addition to the claim that social kinds are mind-dependent, it is often asserted that social kinds are not real because they are mind-dependent. A kind, K, is water only if K is H2O.23 In other words, water is necessarily H2O. Every kind that exists has an identity (i.e., a nature), and the essential properties of a kind are just those properties that identify the kind in question. They are merely features of the world ‘as it is for us.’, Although it is not entirely clear how Searle intends to draw the distinction between features of the world that are ontologically subjective and those that are ontologically objective, he is very clear that mental states like pain are ontologically subjective (Searle 1995: 8). Rather, MD2 says that the very nature of these kinds is conventional. Thus, even if MD3 accomplishes the Dependence Task, it does not accomplish the Anti-Realist Task. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/290368, Johnston, M. 1989. Infallibilism and Human Kinds. I argue that none of these captures the sense in which social kinds fail to be real according to social kind anti-realists. According to MD2, it is not merely that the existence or instantiation of social kinds is conventional. Counterconventional Conditionals. On this more ‘robust’ understanding of realism, a kind, K, is real when it has its boundaries ‘independently of how our concepts and representations might happen to divide things up, in particular, independently of what we believe about the conditions relevant to drawing those boundaries’ (2003b: 582). For example, the essence of Queen Elizabeth II (say, her biological origin) specifies what it is to be Queen Elizabeth II, as opposed to Queen Elizabeth I, or Queen Victoria. Modernist literature and art have been dominated by a disinterest in mere empirical and social reality and a discontent with habitualized perception and the world-view of convention, reason, and pragmatism. ), Rethinking the Individualism-Holism Debate. Successful thought amounts to the detection of something real, as opposed to a projection onto the real of our own peculiar or subjective perspective…” And so on down the list of familiar words and pictures. The principal referent of literary realism is, ostensibly, reality. No Work for a Theory of Grounding. I think that it is plausible to interpret Searle’s constitutive rules as supplying sufficient conditions for the existence of instances of social kinds (i.e., some individual being a member of the kind in question), and so I think that MD1 is faithful to Searle’s view. Thus, whether anything is money depends on there being certain social conventions. However, MD2 does not accomplish the dependence task: we cannot determine the essential properties of any kind, whether or not it is social. According to Einheuser, a world consists not just of a substratum, but of a substratum plus a carving. ), Varieties of Dependence Munich: Philosophia Verlag. Third, some philosophers deny that a domain of entities is real if our discourse about them is not truth apt. In: Correia, F and Schnieder, B (eds. 5). The term was coined as an argument against a form of realism Dummett saw as 'colorless reductionism'. In this section, I argue that this essentialist relation does not accomplish the Dependence Task either and therefore does not support social kind anti-realism. The responses to this question took two broad forms. I have argued against the view that social kinds are not real in virtue of being mind-dependent. Koslicki, K. 2013. The Philosophy of Sociality: The Shared Point of View. That is, MD2 does not merely say that whether there are any women, or men, or money depends on there being certain social conventions. Putnam, H. 1975. Protosociology, 18/19: 269–440. Indeed, the relevant figurative descriptions are common to many discussions of realism and anti-realism in the philosophical literature. Gideon Rosen describes the distinction between realism and anti-realism as follows: What the realist mainly claims is the right to say things like this: “Our discourse about X concerns a domain of fact that is out there. To the contrary, such properties seem to be metaphysically on par with dispositional properties which do not implicate any mental states, such as the property of being disposed to shatter. For example, we determine which properties are essential to money by the way in which we use the word ‘money’ and apply the concept MONEY.20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5840/protosociology200318/199, Thomasson, A. 24Charles Mills defends a similar view with respect to race. Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 46(2): 147–167. ), Creations of the Mind Oxford: Oxford University Press. Mills, C. 1998. The substratum, s, of a world, w, includes those properties which do not depend (in the relevant sense) on the way in which we apply our concepts. Tinkering with the details of the proposed modal-existential relation does nothing to address this general problem. On her view, social kinds do not have their boundaries independently of our beliefs about where those boundaries are located because our mental states ‘play a stipulative role in constituting’ their nature (2003b: 590). pp. pp. Although modal correlation is (defeasible) evidence of the presence of a dependence relation, it does not constitute such a relation. 16See Trogdon 2013, Raven 2015, and Bliss and Trogdon 2016 for overviews of some of these debates. Midwest Studies in Philosophy, 4(1): 73–122. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199978267.001.0001. 3–17. Dispositional Theories of Value. Whereas ontologically objective features are supposed to be features of the world ‘as it is in itself,’ ontologically subjective features are features as the world ‘as it is for us.’ On this view, conferred properties and conferred property kinds are ontologically subjective. 20I use quotation marks for words (e.g., the word ‘money’) and capital letters for concepts (e.g., the concept of money is MONEY). In: Margolis, E and Laurence, S (eds. pp. Other articles where Antirealism is discussed: philosophy of religion: Realism and antirealism: A renewed concern of philosophers of religion in the late 20th and early 21st centuries was to determine the sense in which religious claims may be said to be true. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jso-2015-0045, Koslicki, K. 2012. 2013. The Journal of Philosophy, 70(19): 699–711. The Construction of Social Reality. Oxford: Oxford University Press. For example, consider a context in which gender identity serves as the socially significant base property, e.g., in trans-inclusive subcultures. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/392851, Rosen, G. 1994. pp. Hilary Putnam's "internal realism" Realism in the Social Sciences. Social Construction: Big-G Grounding, Small-g Realization. ), Perspectives on Social Ontology and Social Cognition. Similarly, it is matter of convention that bills issued by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing are money—indeed, it is a matter of convention that anything (e.g., bits of paper, gold coins, cowry shells, etc.) (1994: 278 emphasis in original). The antirealist denies our right to this imagery. In: Gallotti, M and Michael, J (eds. What Is Individualism in Social Ontology? However, because it is a modal-existential relation, the arguments presented in this section undermine it as well. The Journal of Philosophy, 109(12): 685–711. In: Gallotti, M and Michael, J (eds. Mallon, R. 2016. 58–75. Interactive Kinds. 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