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Physical limitations such as climate, geography, chemical elements and so on, have their limiting effect on authority. Vertical delegation of authority determines relationship between a boss and his subordinate and the horizontal division of authority determines the degree of decentralisation. According to Barnard, “an individual will accept the exercise of authority by his superior if the advantages to him from accepting the authority and the disadvantages from not accepting the authority are greater than the advantages from not accepting and the disadvantages from accepting; conversely, he will not accept the exercise of authority if the latter factors are greater than the former.”. The other means, that it can help in making authority more effective and may include the backing and support to lower executives, from the top executives, due attention to their advice, usually confirming their decisions, permitting command to flow through proper channels and supplying adequate information and materials to them. If the subordinate ably and willingly accept to perform the assigned tasks or responsibility, and performs it in the manner desired by the manager, he can rest content that his authority enjoys acceptance. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. By Bill W. The Tradition of Alcoholics Anonymous in its present short form suggests that AA shall forever remain unorganized, that we may create special boards or committees to serve us -- never governmental in character. Authority is a formal or institutionalized form of power vested in a position or office. Exit Formalities : When your employer is not ready to relieve you from your services! The essence of responsibility is then, obligation.”. On the other hand, when the president hires some lower for seeking legal advice and advocating a particular case in the court of law, his obligation comes to an end when the assignment is completed. Authority is never absolute like responsibility. Laws, trade practices etc. It may continue or cease with the accomplishment of the desired objective. A few definitions of the term “authority” are given below: “Authority is the right to give orders and the power to obedience”. This customary acceptance of authority is a part of our culture and day- to-day behaviour. Delegation, authority, and responsibility: A reconfiguration of an old paradigm Management is often defined in simple terms as getting things accomplished through people. They do not work on their own; they need humans to work them. ‘Competence’ or ‘Personal Authority’ theory. ‘Formal’, ‘Traditional’ or ‘Top-Down Theory’ of Authority: Formal authority flows from law, rules, and regulations that are framed by, or with the consent of all stakeholders. The authority is power to command or to exact action from others in the process of discharging the delegated responsibility. But the acceptance theory has been criticised on the grounds that: ii. A COMMAND CLIMATE ASSESSMENT SHOULD BE CONDUCTED AT WHAT MIN FREQ ... coordinating a comprehensive safety program based on the objectives of the CO is the responsibility of what authority. Every civilized society follows certain traditions and carefully protects and preserves them. If the subordinates do not accept the authority of manager, they may not willingly comply with his decisions and orders – they may even defy them. Top managers of the company owe responsibility and accountability to their superiors—the board of directors—who on their part are responsible and accountable to shareholders. Authority is the right to give orders and the power to exact obedience. Share Your Word File The platform of position (authority) should supplement and correspond to the in-charge persons for dispensing responsibility. Responsibility is derived from function which is the origin for relationship. Accountability still rest with the person having the utmost authority. 20 No. For example, shareholders of a company are the source of all legal authority to con­trol and manage its affairs. While exercising authority, the manager must keep the following limitations in his mind. The task or responsibility to produce minimum 100 units per day is a task or responsibility expressed in quantitative terms. 210 Leadership Authority and Responsibility 211 In accepting your commission, you gain a position of “special trust and confidence” in the eyes of the President – trust and confidence in your “patriotism, valor, fidelity, and abilities.” By virtue of your commission you are placed in a position of authority (iii) He wants to avoid disciplinary action, (iv) he regards the maturity, age or experience of superior (v) he wants to avoid responsibility, (vi) he believes that the authority is legitimate and should be followed. Authority is one of the important considerations in the process of management. In order to ensure that authority and responsibility are co-equal, a correlative action may be resorted to. 3. ‘Formal’, ‘Traditional’ or ‘Top-Down’ theory. Responsibility has no meaning except as applied to a promotion. The subordinate can not authorize responsibility. Failure to observe these elements may call for a penalty, punishment or disciplinary action against the erring subordinate. The relationships that exist in an organization may be formal and/or informalâ€?. Identify some of the powers and responsibilities of federal, state, and local governments. Authority must be equal to Responsibility. The right may also be rooted in tradition, or the charisma of a person. Start studying Equal Opportunity Assignment 1. The reasons for these commands are fascinating, and not based in time or culture. For a while he forgets that under the current global business scenario, an efficient worker would stay only if his compensation package compares favorably with that of similarly qualified work­ers in other organizations. (b) The objective aspect that is the character in the communication by virtue of which it is accepted. Attrition : Is there any solution to it ? Continuous or Specific-Duration Task or Responsibility: Task or responsibility assigned to a subordinate may be a continuing obligation, or it may be limited in terms of time or tasks. However, when the same group meets to discuss about bank recovery for the next two months, it is in the context of a formal organization. To run the organization towards its goal and objectives the authority of the executive has to be re-delegated to the managers down the line to reach the bottom line managers. The acceptance theory was formulated by Chester Barnard who held that authority lies in the character of a communication (order) issued in a formal organization which makes it acceptable to the persons for whom it is intended. (2) Only person holding authority can make decisions: Decision-making is the main feature of authority. – Henry Fayol, “Authority is the official and the legal right to command action by others and to enforce compliance. Responsibility is defined as one’s obligation to perform the functions assigned to the best of one’s ability in accordance with directions received. The acceptance theory really emphasizing the leadership function of management that is the ability to persuade others to work well in the interest of goals/objectives of enterprise. However, relationship between CEO and an auditor who is appointed annually to conduct audit of the company accounts is a specific duration task or responsibility. Only a per­son holding authority—legal, traditional or competence—can assign task or responsibility. The word authority is used with different meanings as: A person with superior knowledge and skill is described as an authority in the sense of an expert. Since 1950 the term technical authority or computer authority has come into use. Bernard says that the subordinate automatically accepts most orders given by the manager. The important principle of authority is: Authority and responsibility should be equal. They follow the leader because, according to their per­ception, he articulates their feelings and aspirations. Non-living inanimate beings – machine, tool, capital – cannot be assigned task or responsibility. 3. But as per Koontz O’ Donnel source of authority is discussed under three headings: The people who have belief in his theory, accept the basis that the ultimate source of authority in a business firm is embedded in the institution of private property, which is interested in a; person power over material resources. Greater authority comes with greater responsibility. In a more comprehensive sense responsibility can be defined as an obligation of a subordinate to perform the duties assigned to him. Everything you need to know about authority and responsibility in management. Therefore responsibility cannot be delegated. The important principle of authority is: Authority and responsibility should be equal. Responsibility is in the form of a continuing obligation. Some persons having attractive personality command others to work. The essence of responsibility is obligation to perform the assigned duty or task. Establishing vertical and horizontal relationships can do this more effectively through the sharing of authority effected by delegation. Authority and right to command helps the manager get work done by others in the organization and the degree of authority goes on descending down the line. If the authority is more than responsibility then chances are that a manager may misuse it. Respect­ing and serving elders in family and society is an age-old tradition, so is responsibility of parents to raise and properly educate and train children for life ahead. It is common to hear about delegating responsibilities, holding a person responsible, discharging responsibilities and carrying out a responsibility. Responsibility moves in the upward control from subordinate to superior. Under the acceptance theory, it is believed that authority comes to the manager by the acceptance of power to make and enforce decisions through his subordinates. Learn about the meaning, definition, concept, relationship of authority and responsibility in management. The term Responsibility is, most of the times, used to mean duty, activity, liability, accountability or even authority. Assignment of a task or responsibility casts a duty to perform something. The Second Tradition is the source of all of the authority which, as you know, lies in the … G. R. Terry observes “In almost every enterprise, emergency and unusual events accrue which are not provided for in the organisational set-up. This means that a subordinate will accept authority only if it falls within his zone of acceptance. While the president may delegate much decision-making power, some revenue and expense items remain exclusively under the … Responsibility is the most misunderstood term in the literature of management. If the marketing manager directs the sales sup… One authority can give a person or a body power and then that person or body holds authority which it must exercise responsibly. 3. Authority may be subject to the social beliefs, codes, creeds and habits of the group over which it has to be exercised. Authority may be subjected to the bye-laws, standing orders, rules and regulation of the company (as per articles and memorandum of the company). Is ‘Responsibility’ Different from ‘Accountability’? He also recognized that any official authority vested in the job was often ineffecti… For example, exercise of authority by his manager will fall within his zone of acceptance if the following conditions are satisfied: (a) If the rewards arising from acceptance of authority are greater than the value of skills and effort that he would be required to spend on performing the task or responsibility; (b) If he has a strong sense of belonging to the organization and hence would willingly accept the authority without subjecting it to cost-benefit analysis; and. Authority is the legal right to give the command, order or instruction and compel the subordinates to do a certain act. Conclusion – Authority and Responsibility. Authority is the legal right of person or superior to command his subordinates while accountability is the obligation of individual to carry out his duties as per standards of performance Authority flows from the superiors to subordinates,in which orders and instructions are given to subordinates to complete the task. COMMAND MANAGED EQUAL OPPORTUNITY PROGRAM. But you can be aware and take these proactive steps. authority should be commensurate with responsibility. From the above definitions, two points become clear that the possessor of authority influences the activity and behaviour of other individuals or groups and that he has the right to issue orders and ensure their compliance by subordinates. The subordinate will accept the authority of a command, understand it, believe it and follow it in the interest of the organization. According to acceptance theory, authority of a manager will be in direct proportion to the acceptance given to his authority by his subordinates. True Allowing lower-level persons to participate in decision making is characteristic of a decentralized organization. Regard for the Mores and Folk Ways of the Group: Authority when used commands reaction from individual as well as groups. In management science authority, responsibility and accountability are three terms around which the whole set of managerial activities cluster. It means the person who has been assigned a task or responsibility has a duty or obligation to perform it. There are plenty of examples which conflict with each other and that I believe are completely incorrect and in a lot of cases the definitions totally conflict with themselves: 1. Senior citizens are willingly offered seats in crowded buses and trains; no one minds their jump­ing the queue to visit a doctor, or to withdraw money from bank. Normally subordinates recognize authority of those occupying higher hierarchical positions. The whole organisational structure is based on the concept of authority without use of authority, anarchy and utter confusion will prevail all around the enterprise Authority is usually respected, recognised and followed in the organisation as a matter of course. 1. Clear identification of responsibility limits. Authority means a formal, institutional or legal power in a particular job, function or position that empowers the holder of that job, function or position to successfully perform his task. The responsibility expected for a position should be commensurate with the authority delegated to that position, and vice-versa. It is the means through which co-operative activity becomes a success and common objectives are achieved. Share Your PDF File 8. For this reason they cannot be held accountable for failure or deficiency of performance. iii. It changes with time, position and group behaviour of the subordinates etc. Authority flows from superior to the subordinate manager to whom certain duties are assigned and responsibility is the obligation of the subordinate to accomplish these duties. Concept Ten: Every service responsibility should be matched by an equal service authority — the scope of such authority to be always well defined whether by tradition, by resolution, by specific job description or by appropriate charters and bylaws. Responsibility comes hand in hand with authority. Performance evaluations and fitness reports should be based on which of the following factors? General Service Conference - 1957. The essence of the theory is that any authority is as effective or inef­fective as the willingness or unwillingness of subordinates to accept it. Giving employees greater responsibilities without the authority to meet them is a recipe for managerial disaster. It is only through authority, a manager exercises control. How to survive when your role is soon to be eliminated ? The informal structure refers to the social groups or friendships which people working together may form. They do so also because they trust his extraordinary technical, social and human qualities. More example sentences. Task or Responsibility only Assigned to Human Beings: Task or responsibility can only be assigned to humans. may also impose certain limitations on the use of authority. 6. Getting things done by people is not possible without compliance on the part of subordinates and the authority which ensures compliance. Authority: Chester Barnard has defined authority as a character of “an order in the informal organisation by virtue of which … The relationship between a president and his sales managers is typical of the continuing type of obligation. He tells the participants to do certain things in a specified manner, to obey orders from designated individuals, and to work co-operatively with others. What happens when an Open-Door meeting goes wrong? As per this definition, there are two aspects involved in the concept of authority. 4. Delegation of authority from a manager to a subordinate is in proportion to the nature of tasks and responsibility assigned to the subordinate. Authority is subject to the physical and mental capacity of the subordinate who has to exercise it. Allen defines authority as “the sum of the powers and rights entrusted to make possible the performance of the work delegated.” This definition emphasise the right and power aspects and adds another dimension, namely the implication that the authority is delegated with a view to performance of the work and is delegated to the extent of the responsibility for the work entrusted to the delegatee. 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