There was little time for conversation. What might have succeeded on the sixth or seventh seemed risky by the tenth. In general, underground units remained calm. "Robbing the American Peter who is fed from Cherbourg," he told Tedder, "will certainly not get the British Paul to Berlin. To Rommel, the coastal defenses were a "figment of Hitler's Wolkenkuckucksheim [cloud cuckoo land]." Under cover of darkness, ever since September 6, a hastily assembled fleet consisting of two ancient Dutch freighters, several Rhine barges and some small boats and rafts had been plying back and forth across the three-mile mouth of the Schelde estuary ferrying men, artillery, vehicles and even horses.Although powerful coastal guns on Walcheren Island protected against attack from the sea, the Germans were surprised that Allied naval forces made no effort to interfere. How was it being developed? To Student, the expert in paratroop warfare and supertrained airborne shock troops, his makeshift army was a "grotesque improvisation on a grand scale." Von Rundstedt thought him better suited to the job of a "good regimental sergeant major." Although Prince Bernhard and SHAEF (Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Forces) had cautioned against a general uprising, some underground members had run out of patience. Jan's father-in-law told him not to "worry anymore about the Germans; you won't have to 'dive' now." For him, the war had begun with great promise. These moves, Eisenhower believed, would place a "strangle hold on Germany's main industrial areas and largely destroy her capacity to wage war...." Opening the ports of Le Havre and Antwerp was essential, Eisenhower went on, before any "powerful thrust" into Germany could be launched. Everywhere he saw the Dutch rejoicing. Yet nobody, in the heady atmosphere of the moment, saw this oversight as more than a temporary condition. Everywhere throughout the disorderly convoys were swarms of tired, dusty soldiers on hastily commandeered bicycles.There were even more bizarre forms of transportation. Twice in a little more than twelve hours (at 11:45 P.M. on September 4 and again on the morning of September 5) the Dutch Service of the BBC announced that the fortress city of Breda, seven miles from the Dutch-Belgian border, had been liberated. Surely Holland would be liberated within hours. Next, he turned his attention to the bridges and set up "reception centers" at their northern exits. And because of the nightly curfew the villagers were unable to leave their houses to investigate.Plagued by uncertainty, they could only wait. A Bridge Too Far May 30, 2015 | by ... ‘It means we can do all the necessary repairs on the existing bridge without causing too much in the way of disruption.’ As all this work was being divvied up, the Forth Crossing Bill was wending its way through the Scottish Parliament. Eisenhower felt that the Field Marshal was "a psychopath...such an egocentric" that everything he had ever done "was perfect...he never made a mistake in his life." become a modern classic--a full-scale biography of great baseball player and humanitarian Roberto Clemente, who lived, played, and died with enduring passion and grace. Montgomery overrode him. Instead, he suggested concentrating on seizing the Rhine crossing at Wesel. But the strong-willed general, watching the near-panic on the roads and prompted by Model's Order of the Day, decided to disregard orders. Eisenhower listened intently and with sympathy to the arguments, but his own view remained unchanged. Openly, with German troops all about, he and a few hand-picked assistants calmly drove up in a baker's van to the Municipal Hospital, where the weapons were hidden. 2020-07-09T19:46:25+00:00 By Download ebook | Categories: Society & Social Sciences | Tags: Cornelius Ryan | Share This Book. A Bridge Too Far is a 1977 epic war film based on the 1974 book of the same name, directed by Richard Attenborough and with a screenplay by William Goldman. On the afternoon of September 4, as he set out for his headquarters near Koblenz, Von Rundstedt saw nothing to stop the Allies from invading Germany, crossing the Rhine and ending the war in a matter of weeks.On this same day in Wannsee, Berlin, Colonel General Kurt Student, fifty-four-year-old founder of Germany's airborne forces, emerged from the backwater to which he had been relegated for three long years. "A Bridge Too Far" is the classic text on the history of Operation Market Garden. But it was not until we drove west to the outlying district of Oosterbeek that we found what we were looking for." Besides there were grave shortages in gasoline, transportation and ammunition. As a fan of the movie I was surprised at how well the film version relates the story told in the book. The Allies, the Germans suspected, completely underestimated the size of the evacuation. In a brief telephone call, Colonel General Alfred Jodl, Hitler's operations chief, ordered him to immediately organize an army, which the Führer had designated as the "First Parachute Army." To use the port, the Allies needed to control its seaward approach, an inlet 54 miles long and 3 miles wide at its mouth, running into Holland from the North Sea past Walcheren Island and looping alongside the South Beveland peninsula. Had General Johannes Blaskowitz, its commander, successfully withdrawn from France? A Bridge Too Far is a film that tries to focus more on the historical aspects of the battle, and with that in mind, it's not a pure action film. After Rommel was badly wounded by a strafing Allied plane on July 17, no one had been sent to replace him. With the remainder of his troops the hapless Von Zangen was to attack northeast into the avalanche of British armor. Hitler seemed to have convinced himself of his own manufactured version for Von Rundstedt's dismissal on "health grounds" back in July. Given a free hand, Von Rundstedt had planned a slow withdrawal to the German frontier, during which, as he outlined his plans to Blumentritt, he would have "exacted a terrible price for every foot of ground given up." On the contrary, he was insisting that they be used at the earliest opportunity. Eisenhower's "broad-front policy" -- moving his armies steadily forward to the borders of the Reich, then up to the Rhine -- may have been valid when planned before the invasion, but with the sudden disorderly collapse of the Germans, the Britisher believed, it was now obsolete. You couldn't depend for long on that one bridge to supply your drive. It flooded through Arnhem and headed east for Germany. The airborne forces were to seize a succession of river crossings in Holland ahead of his troops, with the major objective being the Lower Rhine bridge at Arnhem. So desperate were the Germans to reach safety that on the nights of September 3 and 4, in total disregard of Allied air attacks, soldiers set up searchlights at some crossroads and many overloaded vehicles crawled by, headlights blazing. Elias Broekkamp, a wine importer, saw some troops moving north toward Arnhem, but the majority were being funneled back and traffic was being broken up, processed and fanned out. There was little to stop them from penetrating the unmanned, outdated Siegfried Line, crossing Germany's last natural barrier, the vital Rhine, and striking into the Reich's industrial heart.Von Rundstedt's analytical mind had seized on one more fact. Between 1948 and 1994 South Africa was abhorred by the world because of it's dreadful separate development policies. Although some of SHAEF's staff, including many Britishers, considered Montgomery insufferable and said so, Eisenhower never commented on him except in private to his chief of staff, Bedell Smith. To strike into Germany, Montgomery proposed to use almost the entire First Allied Airborne Army in a stunning mass attack.His plan was an expanded, grandiose version of Operation Comet. This edition published in 1974 by Simon and Schuster in New York. Many in Amsterdam believed that British troops had already freed The Hague, near the coast about thirty miles to the southwest. "Then Montgomery made an extraordinary disclosure. She was wrong. "From the first fragment of the message that Montgomery received, it was abundantly clear that Eisenhower had rejected his plan, for it contained the sentence, "No relocation of our present resources would be adequate to sustain a thrust to Berlin." Anton Mussert had long boasted that his party had more than 50,000 Nazis. Produced by Joseph E. Levine and Richard P. Levine, it was the second film based on a book by historian Cornelius Ryan to be adapted for the screen. Free shipping and pickup in store on eligible orders. He addressed tactical mistakes made in planning the operation. Still, in his opinion, there was valid reason for an immediate attack.Montgomery remained adamant. The escape route remained open. Should it not be so, however, and your new weapons...not succeed, then, my Führer, make up your mind to end the war. In this compelling work of history, Ryan narrates the Allied effort to end the war in … The Supreme Commander would have little choice, he reasoned, but to let him continue toward Berlin -- thus ending the war, as Montgomery put it, "reasonably quickly." All through the convoys the Dutch saw trucks, farm wagons, hand carts -- even perambulators pushed by fleeing troops -- piled high with loot filched from France, Belgium and Luxembourg. The Prince felt a renewal of hope, for "anything Montgomery did, he would do well. Unshaken in his conviction that the Supreme Commander's decision was a grave error and confident that his own plan would work, Montgomery refused to accept Eisenhower's rejection as final. In short, he made it quite clear that his "broad-front policy" would continue.Montgomery turned for the moment to the subject of a land commander. A HUGE Tory rebellion is on the cards tonight when parliament votes on bringing in the new tiered ‘stealth lockdown’. In the north British and American pressure was noticeably less. Still, he was back in the war again.All through the afternoon, by telephone and teletype, Student mustered and moved his men out. Airborne unit commanders were informed of the plan on September 11, 1944. Later Marinus learned that the soldier was a Russian prisoner of war who had been conscripted into the Wehrmacht. Without hesitation, Von Rundstedt canceled that attack. Student didn't even have a chief of staff.Nevertheless, Student's men, Jodl explained, were urgently needed in the west. "The earliest scheduling of the operation would be the fifteenth or sixteenth," he told the Field Marshal.Carrying Montgomery's skeleton plan and weighed with the urgency of preparing for such a massive mission in only a few days, Browning flew back to England immediately. We were not listened to. The Field Marshal could see no solution to any of these impending threats. In the movie, this phrase is uttered by Browning. 9:40. But, among the flurry of frantic orders Model issued on this last day as OB West, one would prove momentous. The 11th Armored, its assignment completed, held its positions awaiting new orders.The magnificent drive of Dempsey's armored forces in the north, equaling that of Patton's south of the Ardennes, had run its course, though at this moment few realized it. Yet he had no intention of flying to Jullouville in an attempt to change Eisenhower's mind. For the insignificant village of Driel, untouched until now, the war had only begun.2Fifty miles south, in towns and villages close to the Belgian border, the Dutch were jubilant. Further, he was banking on it that Montgomery's slowdown held a far deeper significance. Yet Bernhard was uneasy.Over the past seventy-two hours messages reaching him from the resistance had again and again underscored the German panic in Holland and repeated the news that the retreat, begun on September 2, was still in progress. Then, once he was over the Rhine and headed for the Ruhr, he did not see how Eisenhower could halt his drive. "Everywhere the Dutch rejoiced. Why else would the British hesitate, instead of instantly crossing the border? Patton's U.S. Third Army, more than a hundred miles ahead of everyone else, and meeting little opposition, was forced to halt for five days on the Meuse, because armored columns were out of gas. Twenty-four hours later, in a polite handwritten note, Hitler informed Von Rundstedt that, "in consideration of your health and of the increased exertions to be expected in the near future," he was relieved of command.Von Rundstedt, the senior and most dependable field marshal in the Wehrmacht, was incredulous. "Eisenhower was not impressed. Diplomatically, Eisenhower explained to Montgomery that, whatever the merits of a single thrust, he could hardly hold back Patton and stop the U.S. Third Army in its tracks. Along the entire front, against the Allies' estimated strength of more than two thousand tanks, there were only one hundred panzers left. Kortie experienced a feeling of dread.Far more disheartening for observant Dutch was the discovery that reinforcements were coming in from Germany. In this compelling work of history, Ryan narrates the Allied effort to end the war in Europe in 1944 by dropping the … Thronging the roads from the Belgian border north to Arnhem and beyond were tracks, buses, staff cars, half-track vehicles, armored cars, horse-drawn farm carts and civilian automobiles running on charcoal or wood. The classic first-hand WWII narrative that chronicles the Marines' savage five-day struggle to wrest Mount To protect the villagers from their own excesses, he stopped selling the ribbon. Constantly referring to a sheaf of Eisenhower's communications that had arrived during the previous week, he called attention to the Supreme Commander's inconsistencies in not clearly defining what was meant by "priority." There were dozens of German-filled trucks, nose-to-tail, "all dangerously overloaded." He must produce, as quickly as possible, a strategic blueprint for the 400-mile western front running from the North Sea all the way to the Swiss border -- a plan which Field Marshal Model had candidly found beyond his capability. Free download or read online A Bridge Too Far pdf (ePUB) book. The fifty-five-year-old Eisenhower thought Montgomery's proposal "unrealistic" and "fantastic." Yet each move the Führer made seemed more desperate than the last.Model's appointment as OB West had not helped. Antwerp, he stressed, must be opened before any major drive into Germany could even be contemplated. As his chief of staff, General Francis de Guingand, later put it: "Montgomery...never, I believe, thought that the day would come so soon. Published on Fri 18 Aug 2006 19.53 EDT. Though pocketed -- the sea lay behind them to the north and west, and Canadians and British were pressing in from the south and east -- they nevertheless controlled most of the southern bank of the estuary.By now, Model believed, British tanks, exploiting the situation, would surely be moving along the northern bank and sweeping it clear. For the 75th anniversary of D-Day, a deluxe collector's edition gathering two gripping masterpieces of military history. Von Kluge was replaced by Model and ordered to report immediately to the Führer. )As for German panzer forces, they were virtually nonexistent. I'm your boss." He felt publicly humiliated.It was hardly a secret that Monty and his superior, Sir Alan Brooke, Chief of the Imperial General Staff, were highly critical of Eisenhower. Suribachi from its tenacious Japanese defenders during their 35 day battle for Iwo Jima in 1945. Library services are adjusted due to coronavirus. Calmly Eisenhower answered that he had never meant to give Montgomery "absolute priority" to the exclusion of everyone else. He had by now expected that British tanks, after capturing the city, would strike north, cut off the Beveland peninsula, and smash into Holland. After six weeks of almost nonstop advance against little opposition, few noted the sudden loss of momentum. Still, if something was wrong, Bernhard had to know.At his spartan, tented headquarters in the Royal Palace Gardens at Laeken, a few miles from the center of Brussels, Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery impatiently waited for an answer to his coded "Personal for Eisenhower Eyes Only" message. The sudden disintegration of the enemy's forces and their headlong flight eastward had made the Allied timetable meaningless. And shortly after 2 P.M. on September 5 the new commander in chief found his headquarters in the little town of Aremberg near Koblenz.Tired and irritable after his long journey, Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt dispensed with the usual military courtesies and fanfare that often accompanied a German change of command. In the interest of Allied amity, he might modify strategy, but Eisenhower had no intention of throwing caution to the winds and allowing Montgomery, as the Supreme Commander later put it, to make a "single, knifelike drive toward Berlin. In all probability, he theorized, it would also end the war. Defense positions had not been prepared. Thus, at this vital juncture in the war, as the Supreme Commander tried to take control of the land battle and with events happening so fast that immediate decisions were necessary, Eisenhower was physically immobilized.Although Montgomery -- or, for that matter, Bradley and Patton -- might feel that Eisenhower "was out of touch with the land battle," only distance made that argument valid. Turning his attention to Montgomery's front, as Blumentritt was later to remember, Von Rundstedt concentrated on the situation at Antwerp. He insisted that the attack had to be launched in a few days. euronews (in English) 57:56. To Keitel, Hitler had merely said, "I want to see if the old man's health has improved. Now, to Von Rundstedt's dismay, the Führer stressed the impregnability of the Westwall -- the long-neglected, unmanned but still formidable frontier fortifications better known to the Allies as the Siegfried Line. 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