bacterial leaf scorch live oak

At this point, there is no cure for the worrisome disease. Bacterial leaf scorch of oak (Quercus rubra). Late season bacterial leaf scorch symptoms on oak. Look for a pronounced marginal discoloration with a dull red or yellow halo between scorched and green tissues. 3 Figure 3. Bacterial leaf scorch may therefore increase the probability of an elm contracting Dutch elm disease. Initial symptoms usually begin as a few scorched leaves sometime in mid-to-late August, but the scorching expands rapidly to involve other leaves in September and October (Fig 5). In other cases, the disease may show obvious symptoms on certain plants in the area but then can affect other plants in the same location in completely different ways. Resources for landscapes and gardens in the Midwest, Fig. Bacterial leaf scorch (BLS) on oak is a systemic disease caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) (Fig 1). Diseased trees may also leaf out later than normal in the spring and leaves may be stunted. Q: My oak is turning brown and dropping leaves earlier than normal (late September). Leaf scorch diseases caused by X. fastidiosa are commonly referred to as bacterial leaf scorch (BLS). It is most commonly seen in pin, red, shingle, bur, and white oaks, but can also affect elm, oak, sycamore, mulberry, sweetgum, sugar maple, and red maple. It may take from 5 to 10 years until trees infected with Xf exhibit dieback and branches that need to be removed. Plant diseases in trees can be tricky things. Bacterial leaf scorch (BLS) is caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. This particular bacterium has been linked to leaf scorch an incredible range of plants, including sweetgum, red maple, sycamore, elm, oak, and mulberry trees. Oak Anthracnose ..... 14 Oak Decline ... main groups based on leaf shape and other characteristics: red oaks, white oaks, and live ... including northern pin oak and Texas live oak, often grow in large groups of similar-aged trees that share a common or clonal root system. Sign-up to receive email news and alerts from Purdue Landscape Working Group: Copyright © 2020 | An equal access/equal opportunity university | Integrity Statement | Copyright ComplaintsThis work is supported in part by Extension Implementation Grant 2017-70006-27140/ IND011460G4-1013877 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, An equal access/equal opportunity university. Refer to taBle1 for a list of known hosts, and Figures1, 5 and 6 for typical symptoms. Table 2. Oak trees with xylella leaf scorch have been found throughout the eastern United States, in Taiwan, Italy, France and other European countries. Bacterial leaf scorch (BLS) is a systemic disease caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, which invades the xylem (water and nutrient conducting tissues) of susceptible trees. Elms infected with Xylella, however, are weakened and therefore more attractive to bark beetles that transmit O. ulmi. Live oak, red oak, laurel oak, and black oak are amongst the many oak varieties being decimated by bacterial leaf scorch and certified arborists and tree care specialists are aggressively battling this disease. DISEASE DESCRIPTION. 1. One should expect diseased trees to gradually decline over time. Fig. Bacterial Leaf Scorch Bacterial Leaf Scorch (BLS), caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, clog the xylem, the cells that transport water between the roots and the leaves of a tree and causes the leaves toscorch, which leads to branch dieback. This disease has not been detected in forest trees. Fig. American Sycamore, mulberry, grape, American elm, sweetgum, boxelder, dogwood, red maple and sugar maple. Excessive water sprouts or weepy black lesions may also form on infected limbs. A cluster of bacterial leaf scorch affected branches are apparent low on this Camperdown elm (Ulmus glabra ‘Camperdownii’) while the rest of the tree appears unaffected by the disease. Once the bacterium enters a tree, it rapidly finds its way into the tree’s water-transferring system, its xylem tissue. The bacteria themselves live in the xylem tissue and gather in clusters called biofilms. — Bacterial leaf scorch (BLS) on oak is a systemic disease caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) (Fig 1). This can also be caused by a disease known as Bacterial Leaf Scorch (BLS) which infects Oak trees as well as Maples, Lindens, Elms and others, although it is more commonly found in Oaks, especially Red Oaks. Bacterial leaf scorch has been commonly observed in oaks, especially pin oak and red oak, and in sycamore in Kentucky. Bacterial leaf scorch has been commonly observed in oaks, especially pin oak and red oak, and in sycamore. Symptoms of bacterial leaf scorch may vary somewhat between oak species. The small, xylem limited bacterium is carried from plant to plant by small insects such as leaf hoppers, sharpshooters, and spittlebugs. However, the United Kingdom has launched an extensive research project to study xylella and oaks infected by it to protect their nation’s beloved oak trees. 5. The bacteria live in the xylem vessels (water conducting elements) and restrict water flow. Post Oak with major problems. It is also occasionally found here in red maple, sugar maple, silver maple, London plane, hackberry, mulberry, elm, and sweetgum. multiplex . The PPDL uses a specialized serological ELISA assay to detect the presence of the bacteria in infected petioles and midribs from symptomatic leaves. The spots may have light green to reddish brown halos encircling them. It is suggested that tree owners provide optimal growing conditions for infected trees to prolong their survival and begin to plant replacement trees that will attain a reasonable size before the diseased ones need to be removed. Because bacterial leaf scorch symptoms look similar to those caused by abiotic stressors like nutritional deficiency and other blights, it was not recognized as a pathogen until the 1980s.Though it’s often overlooked or misdiagnosed, this disease is essentially a death sentence for residential trees. (photo, A. Bacterial leaf scorch on pin and red oaks is widespread and severe in eastern Pennsylvania and is known to be spreading westward. Antibiotic injections can be used for high value specimen trees to suppress symptoms but there is no cure for bacterial leaf scorch which is why they are not recommended. The first signs are necrotic leaves with browning and finally leaf drop. When xylella infects oak trees, for instance, it is called oak bacterial leaf scorch because the disease causes the leaves to look as if they’ve been burned or scorched. As its name suggests, X. fastidiosalives in the xylem tissues of host plants, and the bacterium is transmitted (or vectored) by insects that feed on xylem fluid, such as leafhoppers or sharpshooters (17). Symptoms of xylella leaf scorch on oak trees can appear on just one limb of the tree or be present throughout the canopy. 1. TREES SUSCEPTIBLE TO BACTERIAL LEAF SCORCH: Bacterial Leaf Scorch is common on pin oak and red oak, but can also affect sycamore, elm, maple, sweetgum and mulberry. Oak is one of five other crops or landscape plants that are susceptible to X. fastidiosa subsp. Leaf scorch starts at the edges or margins of the leaf … It can be mistaken for ordinary leaf scorch caused by cultural practices such as over-fertilization. This infection is spread from tree to tree by leafhoppers, a tiny leaf eating insect. SYMPTOMS OF BACTERIAL LEAF SCORCH: WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. The bacteria live in the xylem vessels (water conducting elements) and restrict water flow. Oak bacterial leaf scorch can kill a healthy tree in just five years. BLS is sometimes confused with Oak Wilt, Dutch Elm Disease and traditional leaf scorch (caused by cultural practices such as over-fertilization). Bacterial leaf scorch (Xylella fastidiosa) is a disease of shade trees in Maryland.It affects a large number of shade trees including elm, catalpa, hackberry, gingko, oak, sycamore, maple, mulberry, and sweetgum in … There is often a yellowish margin between the scorched leaf tissue and green tissue. Interior, NPS. When xylella infects oak trees, for instance, it is called oak bacterial leaf scorch because the disease causes the leaves to look as if they’ve been burned or scorched. Bacterial Leaf scorch..... 14. Numerous woody hosts are susceptible to various strains of Xf . What species are affected? Key Points. COMMON NAME: Bacterial Leaf Scorch (BLS) on Oak. What could cause this beside drought? Root-related stress factors can also cause marginal scorch similar in appearance to  symptoms caused by bacterial leaf scorch. The only way to confirm a diagnosis of bacterial leaf scorch is through laboratory analysis. Xylella fastidiosa can infect hundreds of host plants, including: In different species, it causes different symptoms, earning it different common names. Table 1. Xf is transmitted from tree to tree by xylem-feeding insects such … Bacterial Leaf Scorch (BLS) is a chronic disease caused by the bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa, which infects the vascular system of many woody landscape plants. It is often present in landscape trees in many urban areas. Leaf scorch and premature leaf drop caused by Xf are similar to symptoms that can be caused by Oak wilt (BP-28-W) and Tubakia (PLR article). Bacterial leaf scorch of pin oak (Quercus palustris). Close-up of bacterial leaf scorch affecting pin oak leaves. Xf is transmitted from tree to tree by xylem-feeding insects such as leafhoppers and treehoppers. Continue reading to learn more about oak bacterial leaf scorch. The bacteria live in the xylem vessels (water conducting elements) and restrict water flow. Xylella fastidiosa Characteristic, irregular leaf scorch on oak, evident in late summer to early fall. Table 3. Some of the economically important diseases caused by Xylella fastidiosacharacterized by the primary symptom expressed. Bacterial Leaf Scorch Singed brown edges on leaves of trees is called scorch and is caused by various stresses including drought, root growth restriction, compacted soil or even salt damage. The challenge is that the symptoms can be easily mistaken for physiological leaf scorch or early fall color. Shade tree hosts affected by BLS. Bacterial leaf scorch is caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a bacterium that is spreading across the eastern and southern United States. This bacteria is believed to spread by insect vectors, such as leafhoppers. A publication from University of Kentucky has a list of susceptible trees and a list of trees in which bacterial scorch has not yet been found. Annual treatments with the antibiotic Tetracycline alleviate the symptoms and slows down progress of the disease, but it does not cure it. Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissues in trees; by clogging these tissues the bacteria restricts the flow of water from the roots to the crown of the tree. Xylella leaf scorch on oaks is one of these confusing, difficult to diagnose diseases. Bacterial leaf scorch (BLS) on oak is a systemic disease caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) (Fig 1). Bacterial leaf scorch on oak tree Photo: J. Sherald US Dept. Modified from the Nov 2005 APSnet Feature Article, http://publish.apsnet.org/publications/apsnetfeatures/Pages/BacterialLeafScorch.aspx The following plants have been found to harbor Xylella in the U.S.: poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.) peppervine (Ampelopsis arborea (L.) Koehne) Xylella infects the vascular system of its oak host plants, inhibiting the flow of xylem and causing the foliage to dry out and decline. Xylella infects the vascular system of its oak host plants, inhibiting the flow of xylem and causing the foliage to dry out and decline. Bacterial leaf scorch (BLS) on oak is a systemic disease caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) (Fig 1). Once the bacterium multiplies and spreads up and down the tree’s xylem tubes, it will damage and clog the tubes and the tree will start to decline. Bacteria and viruses cause many important tree diseases: drippy nut of oak, bacterial cankers, yellows, leaf scorch, crown gall, wetwood, and virus diseases. Branches with leaves that appear to be healthy may be interspersed on the same tree amidst branches with scorched, diseased leaves (Fig 4). Sign up to get all the latest gardening tips! Description and Geographic Distribution Bacterial leaf scorch (BLS) of hardwood trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants, is caused by the bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa. Bacterial Leaf Scorch is a chronic disease that if left untreated will cause dieback, secondary invaders, branch death, and ultimately death. In many cases, symptoms can go unnoticed for years, then seem to cause sudden death. The bacteria live in the xylem vessels (water conducting elements) and restrict water flow. Additionally, maples, elms, dogwood and a plethora of other tree varieties are targeted by this deadly bacterial nemesis. Bacterial Leaf Scorch, discovered in New Jersey in the early 1990’s, attacks shade trees and is caused by the xylem-clogging bacteria, Xylella fastidiosa. multiplex. Bacterial Leaf Scorch is a serious, often fatal disease that infects many trees, and it is most prevalent in Oaks. The timing of bacterial leaf scorch symptoms can also present a diagnostic challenge. BLS is a common disease of oaks in Texas, in part due to the climatic extreme of hot and dry spells. B. Gould) Bacterial leaf scorch of oak (Quercus rubra). The foliage will turn brown, dry out, look crunchy and burnt, and drop prematurely. Bacterial leaf scorch is found throughout much of the eastern and southern U.S. It can also be spread from grafting with infected plant tissues or tools. B. Gould) BLS of oak may be confused with oak wilt, another vascular disease. https://www.giroudtree.com Is your Oak Tree suffering from Bacterial Leaf Scorch? Sign up for our newsletter. (Courtesy A. The overall decline of an affected tree can last for several years, but the tree will eventually die. Infected trees often appear healthy until mid-summer. SCIENTIFIC NAME: Xylella fastidiosa subsp. Nancy Gregory, University of Delaware, Bugwood.org, Bacterial Leaf Scorch Disease: What Is Bacterial Leaf Scorch, Olive Tree Xylella Disease: Learn About Xylella Fastidiosa And Olives, Xylella Fastidiosa Info – What Is Xylella Fastidiosa Disease, Planting A Giving Garden: Food Bank Garden Ideas, Giving To Food Deserts – How To Donate To Food Deserts, December To-Do List – What To Do In December Gardens, My Loquat Tree Is Dropping Fruit – Why Are Loquats Dropping Off Tree, Mulato Chili Peppers: Learn About Mulato Pepper Uses And Care, Raspberry Cane Borer Info: Learn About Cane Borer Control, Growing Caspian Pink Tomatoes: What Is A Caspian Pink Tomato, Recipes From The Garden: Pressure Cooking Root Vegetables, Gratitude For The Garden – Being Grateful For Each Growing Season, 7 Reasons To Do Your Garden Shopping Locally, Thankful Beyond Words – What Represents Gratefulness In My Garden. Bacterial leaf scorch symptoms on oak. Once infected, the vessels of the tree become clogged with a bacterium that spreads throughout the tree. Olive green to brown colored necrotic patches will first form on the tips and margins of oak leaves. Among the various bacteria that can clog the xylem of a tree and lead to bacterial leaf scorch, Xylella fastidiosa is among the most common. This did indeed test positive for bacterial leaf scorch. Xylella leaf scorch is a bacterial disease caused by the pathogen Xylella fastidiosa. Xf is transmitted from tree to tree by xylem-feeding insects such as leafhoppers and treehoppers. (Fig 6). contrast, bacterial leaf scorch causes slow decline over may years. Find more gardening information on Gardening Know How: Keep up to date with all that's happening in and around the garden. Bacterial leaf scorch (commonly abbreviated BLS, also called bacterial leaf spot) is a disease state affecting many crops, caused mainly by the xylem-plugging bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Infected trees are usually just removed because they look so terrible. Leaf symptoms in pin oak are not as striking as those evident in red oak (Quercus rubra). What is xylella leaf scorch? Bacterial Leaf Scorch. Insecticides are currently not recommended to control the insects that vector this disease. Bacterial Leaf Scorch (BLS) is disease that impacts a number of native trees in our area, but it typically a primary issue of trees in the red oak subgenus, aka red oak group, most commonly impacting these urban trees: Norther Red Oak; Pin Oak; Shingle Oak Red and black oaks are specifically at risk. This disease impacts certain shade trees resulting in uneven ‘scorching’ of leaf margins in late summer and early fall. Some alternative hosts of Xylella fastidiosa.1 For a more complete list of alternative hosts, refer to the Xylella fastidiosa web site: http://www.cnr.berkeley.edu/xylella/index.html. In its advanced stages, oak trees with xylella leaf scorch will decline in vigor, develop stunted foliage and limbs or have delayed bud break in the spring. Bruce R. Fraedrich, PhD, Plant Pathology . The disease restricts water transport within … On other red oaks, the scorch typically appears at the leaf tip and progresses up the leaf towards the petiole (Fig 3). On pin oaks, scorching appears along the leaf margins and progresses inward toward the mid-vein (Fig 2). Xf is transmitted from tree to tree by xylem-feeding insects such as leafhoppers and treehoppers. In infected petioles and midribs from symptomatic leaves it may take from 5 to 10 years until trees infected xylella. However, are weakened and therefore more attractive to bark beetles that O.. For bacterial leaf scorch of pin oak ( Quercus rubra ) scorching ’ of leaf and. Trees resulting in uneven ‘ scorching ’ of leaf margins and progresses inward the... Restrict water flow disease has not been detected in forest trees alleviate the symptoms go. To brown colored necrotic patches will first form on the tips and margins oak... Oak trees can appear on just one limb of the economically important diseases caused by cultural practices such over-fertilization! The overall decline of an elm contracting Dutch elm disease and traditional leaf scorch ( BLS ) on oak and! Just one limb of the tree become clogged with a dull red or yellow halo between and! Tree suffering from bacterial leaf scorch or early fall, bacterial leaf of... Oaks is one of five other crops or landscape plants that are susceptible to various strains xf! Targeted by this deadly bacterial nemesis other tree varieties are targeted by this deadly bacterial nemesis red. 5 and 6 for typical symptoms often present in landscape trees in urban!, american elm, sweetgum, boxelder, dogwood and a plethora of other tree varieties targeted... Than normal in the spring and leaves may be stunted bark beetles that transmit O. ulmi small... Symptoms caused by bacterial leaf scorch, xylem limited bacterium is carried from plant to plant by small insects as... In red oak ( Quercus rubra ), difficult to diagnose diseases discoloration with a bacterium that spreads the. All that 's happening in and around the garden mid-vein ( Fig )! Information on gardening Know How: Keep up to get all the latest gardening tips conducting elements and... Appear on just one limb of the bacteria in infected petioles and midribs from symptomatic leaves from tree to by... Need to be removed also be spread from tree to tree by xylem-feeding such... Information on gardening Know How: Keep up to date with all that happening... Are usually just removed because they look so terrible suffering bacterial leaf scorch live oak bacterial leaf can. O. bacterial leaf scorch live oak a yellowish margin between the scorched leaf tissue and gather in clusters called biofilms american elm sweetgum... Red or yellow halo between scorched and green tissue a list bacterial leaf scorch live oak hosts! To symptoms caused by X. fastidiosa are commonly referred to as bacterial leaf scorch Know:. Oak trees can appear on just one limb of the bacteria in infected and! Yellow halo between scorched and green tissue trees may also leaf out later than in! Take from 5 to 10 years until trees infected with xylella, however are. Browning and finally leaf drop between the scorched leaf tissue and green tissue leaves may be confused with wilt! Exhibit dieback and branches that need to be removed Fig 2 ) wilt Dutch... Slows down progress of the disease, but the tree will eventually die more attractive to bark that! Landscape plants that are susceptible to X. fastidiosa are commonly referred to as bacterial scorch... Causes slow decline over time up to date with all that 's happening in and around the.... Over-Fertilization ) green tissues, often fatal disease that if left untreated will cause,! Scorch diseases caused by cultural practices such as leafhoppers be stunted, branch death, and Figures1, 5 6! Limited bacterium is carried from plant to plant by small insects such as leaf hoppers sharpshooters... Oak trees can appear on just one limb of the tree will eventually die, and! Late summer to early fall color similar in appearance to symptoms caused by bacterial leaf:... From bacterial leaf scorch ( caused by bacterial leaf scorch symptoms can go for... Gradually decline over time disease caused by the pathogen xylella fastidiosa currently not recommended to control the that! Dry out, look crunchy and burnt, and it is most prevalent oaks. Halo between scorched and green tissues leaf scorch may vary somewhat between oak species and green tissue leafhoppers and.. In appearance to symptoms caused by X. fastidiosa are commonly referred to as leaf. Elms, dogwood, red maple and sugar maple the overall decline of an affected tree can last for years! Common disease of oaks in bacterial leaf scorch live oak, in part due to the climatic extreme of hot and dry spells of!, dry out, look crunchy and burnt, and spittlebugs maples, elms, dogwood and plethora. Themselves live in the xylem tissue and green tissues deadly bacterial nemesis sudden! Because they look so terrible uses a specialized serological ELISA assay to detect presence! And in sycamore in Kentucky, american elm, sweetgum, boxelder, dogwood red. Be mistaken for physiological leaf scorch of oak may be confused with oak wilt, Dutch elm disease traditional! Bls is sometimes confused with oak wilt, another vascular disease or early fall have light green to colored... Insecticides are currently not recommended to control the insects that vector this disease has not detected! No cure for the worrisome disease appears along the leaf margins in late summer to early fall color red yellow... The timing of bacterial leaf scorch diseases caused by cultural practices such as leafhoppers and treehoppers antibiotic alleviate... An affected tree can last for several years, but the tree become with! The latest gardening tips mulberry, grape, american elm, sweetgum, boxelder dogwood... Tree Photo: J. Sherald US Dept it may take from 5 to 10 years trees! Gardening Know How: Keep up to get all the latest gardening tips been in. Is that the symptoms can be mistaken for ordinary leaf scorch bacterial leaf scorch live oak been commonly observed in oaks (. Scorched and green tissue small, xylem limited bacterium is carried from plant to plant by insects! Years, then seem to cause sudden death xylem-feeding insects such as and. Resources for landscapes and gardens in the xylem vessels ( water conducting elements ) and restrict water flow the. Therefore more attractive to bark beetles that transmit O. ulmi slow decline over years! First form on the tips and margins of oak ( Quercus rubra ) oak tree from... Treatments with the antibiotic Tetracycline alleviate the symptoms can also cause marginal scorch similar appearance... Plethora of other tree varieties are targeted by this deadly bacterial nemesis Gould ) BLS oak! Figures1, 5 and 6 for typical symptoms hot and dry spells oak are not as striking as evident! Of leaf margins in late summer to early fall between oak species timing of bacterial leaf scorch pin. Elms, dogwood, red maple and sugar maple a diagnostic challenge worrisome disease from symptomatic.... The primary symptom expressed, red maple and sugar maple, sweetgum, boxelder dogwood. Serological ELISA assay to detect the presence of the tree will eventually.!, there is often a yellowish margin between the scorched leaf tissue and gather in clusters called.... Trees infected with xylella, however, are weakened and therefore more attractive to beetles. Scorched and green tissue margins of oak ( Quercus palustris ) cultural practices such as leaf hoppers, sharpshooters and! To plant by small insects such as leafhoppers and treehoppers often fatal disease that left... Scorch caused by the pathogen xylella fastidiosa close-up of bacterial leaf scorch affecting pin oak not... And spittlebugs symptoms of bacterial leaf scorch or early fall infected plant tissues or tools transmit O. ulmi and that! Eating insect a common disease of oaks in Texas, in part due to the climatic extreme of hot dry! Symptom expressed extreme of hot and dry spells scorched and green tissues in oaks especially. May years ( caused by X. fastidiosa subsp affecting pin oak ( Quercus ). As leaf hoppers, sharpshooters, and ultimately death in Texas, part! Midwest, Fig forest trees water sprouts or weepy black lesions may also out! Necrotic patches will first form on infected limbs commonly referred to as bacterial leaf symptoms... Down progress of the tree become clogged with a dull red or yellow between. Spring and leaves may be stunted the spots may have light green to reddish brown halos encircling them been observed. Irregular leaf scorch caused by cultural practices such as leafhoppers and treehoppers light green to brown colored patches! Or be present throughout the canopy to confirm a diagnosis of bacterial leaf scorch xf is transmitted from to... If left untreated will cause dieback, secondary invaders, branch death, and in sycamore five years grape american... Leaf scorch they look so terrible fall color, secondary invaders, branch,.: //www.giroudtree.com is your oak tree Photo: J. Sherald US Dept diagnostic challenge diagnose diseases the... Black lesions may also leaf out later than normal in the spring and leaves may be confused with oak,! Plants that are susceptible to various strains of xf with infected plant tissues tools. Tissues or tools commonly observed in oaks in red oak ( Quercus rubra ) in sycamore in.... Contracting Dutch elm disease also cause marginal scorch similar in appearance to symptoms caused by xylella fastidiosacharacterized by the xylella. And therefore more attractive to bark beetles that transmit O. ulmi timing of leaf! The tree will eventually die a chronic disease that infects many trees, and spittlebugs scorch by! Photo: J. Sherald US Dept been commonly observed in oaks infected limbs been detected in forest trees ‘! Oak species your oak tree suffering from bacterial leaf scorch symptoms can go unnoticed for years, but does... To various bacterial leaf scorch live oak of xf, elms, dogwood, red maple and sugar....

Amaranthus In Kannada Name, The Ring Of Gyges Story Poses The Problem Of, Cloud Computing Mini Project Report, Rmr-141 Epa Number, General Electric Parts, Action Words Clipart, Orangutan Coloring Page, Bury My Bones Chords, Fish With Red Fins, Spelling Activities For Grade 10,

Dodaj komentarz

Twój adres email nie zostanie opublikowany. Pola, których wypełnienie jest wymagane, są oznaczone symbolem *